The history of department
Neurology is a very ancient science and in our country it begins centuries ago. Exactly, by famous tajik scientist and writer Avicenna was written a book «Qonuni tib» (The law of medicine). In the third part of this book he wrote about «neurologic diseases», such as epilepsy, migraine, meningitis – inflammation of the meninges, neurasthenia, tumors of brain, strokes and others. He wrote not only about these diseases, but also differentiate it. In fourth part of this book Avicenna mentioned trauma of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system, that till days are useful. But until 1925 tajik people didn’t know what is the special medical help and even had no imagination about it. Only after 1925 in our Republic started working 5 hospital and 9 polyclinics.
In the beginning of 1931-1932 in Dushanbe and later in Khujand were opened first neurologic departments, and they started by ambulatory observing neurologic patients. The first neurologists in Tajikistan were N.I. Repin, E.S. Krilova and B.T. Mumkin.
After organizing TSMI in 1939, by professor Siriiskii in 1941 was opened chair of neurology and psychiatry, in the central hospital department of neurology №1 in Dushanbe. In 1942, in the period of Great War 2 many scientists of USSR were send to countries of Central Asia. Among them were neurologists docent F.M. Lysica and A.S. Pensyk. In 1942 the chair of neurology was separated from the chair of psychiatry. Head of chair became professor A.S. Pensyk. From these time started preparing of young neurologists in our country and scientific activities.
The structure of chair in 1950 were famous specialists, such as A.M. Pulodov, E.N. Kutchak, A.Kh. Faizulloev, M.K. Qayoumova, R.A. Gershovich, P.S. Movsesyan, T.I.Kholaeva, I.U. Alimov, A.T. Unusova, M.K. Maksunova, O.I. Dubrovina, L.V. Zhivotkova, G.N. Okulova and others. So, the chair of neurology developed very well by the heading of professor A.S. Semenovich fnd docent F.M. Lycica. Because of it in 1959 Pensyk was awarded by high premium «Honored scientist of Soviet Republic of Tajikistan», for enhancing of neurology in Tajikistan.
In 1955-1957 years the head of neurology department became c.m.s. Pulodov, but it was temporary. After that Akhundov S.G. became the head of chair, during 1957-1962 years.
From the 1963 after protecting doctoral dissertation Pulodov again became head of chair and in this position was until 1991. Pulodov was the apprentice of one of the famous scientists of the world E.K. Sepp.
By rich knowledge, great experience, that he earned in big Institutes of Moscow, Pulodov enhanced neurology in our country. He added method of topical diagnostic in neurology practice, that needed in additional instrumental tools, but there were not specialists. Because of it he sent many young neurologists: S.D. Dodkhoev, D.R. Ismailov, M. Mullokholaev, M.U. Usufjonov, G.K. Pulodova, M.R. Ziyaeva, N.V. Safyan, S.G. Popandopulo, A.A. Kalomeiseva were sent to Moscow for improving their skills.
After graduating they came back as a skillful specialists and worked actively for organization deals and expanded laboratory activities. They started and prepared new laboratory methods for electrophysiology (EEG, REG, EMG, Echo-EG), neuropsychologic room, neuroophthalmology and otoneurology. These methods played a great role for growing of scientific – diagnostic works and pedagogical educational activities. At this period grew the numbers of laboratory tools, educative composition. The numbers of wards grew till 150.
Pulodov was very attentive to pediatric neurology, too. He separated it from general neurology. The first pediatric neurologic department was opened for 60 ward and 20 of them had special tools for children. Pediatric neurologists such as T.I. Khojaeva, I.U. Olimov, S.M. Mirzoeva, A.B. Boboev, N.B. Husainjonova were prepared by Pulodov.
In 1968 the name of chair filled by chair of neurology and medical genetic basis. He cared very much for preparing of highly educated specialists of pediatric neurology and started new programs for genetic diseases of nervous system.
Pulodov much cared about defining clinical manifestation of arachnoiditis after influenza, strokes with false tumors, laws of selective trauma during poliomyelitis, botulism, etiology of brucelles, dementia, epilepsy and others.
Pulodov defined etiology and pathogenesis of of many neurologic diseases and he discovered new clinical manifestations that are known by his name in the world of science: such as syndrome of Pulodov, pathologic cranio-facial reflex of Pulodov, facial paralyses by Pulodov. Pulodov from the beginning of his career was very attentive to the preparing of highly educated specialists. By his help were asserted many dissertations: A.Kh. Faizulloev, T.I.Kholaeva, A.T. Unusova, M.K. Maksunova. And also there were asserted many dissertations about: insufficiency of blood circulation in brain, examples of pathologic therapy (S.M. Mirzoeva), liquor changes (O.Ya. Ilyabaev), immunologic status (G.R. Hadiboeva), the role of persist microbes and its source (B.M. Muhammadova). Another very important direction of scientific researches was seizures in children (I.U. Olimov), studying of new anticonvulsant drug – carbotine that was manufactured in chemistry Institute of SA RT for treating of childhood epilepsy (A.B. Boboev), in adults (V.M. Mandrichenko), EEG clinic of anarthria (R.A. Hoshimov), distribution of Parkinson disease in regions of Tajikistan (M.N. Najmidinova), clinical – genetic and molecular analyses of Dushenn myodystrophy in Tajikistan (R.A. Rahmonov). Efficacy rill of Khoja Obi Garm for treating patients with lumbo – sacral diseases was proved (N.P. Kanchenkova). Rich pedagogic experiences, deep knowing of anatomy and physiology of nervous system, based on methods of topical diagnostic, became the reason that Pulodov and Nikiforov published many books and textbooks: “Medullar muscular stroke with false tumor” 1979, publisher “Medicina” – Republic of Uzbekistan; “Clinical neurology” 1972, publisher “Medicina” – Republic of Uzbekistan; “Guideline semiotics of neural diseases” (neurologic symptoms and syndromes) – 1979, publisher “Medicina” – Republic of Uzbekistan; Pulodov and Vinarskaya “Disarthria and role of topical diagnostic for local trauma of brain” 1977 Republic of Uzbekistan; “Neurology” 1989 – Maorif, Republic of Tajikistan. It was very hard to publish, the textbook of Neurology in Tajik language.
After retiring Pulodov from 1991 till 1995 professor I.U. Olimov became head of chair.
But at that time in Tajikistan was civil war and economic of government decreased. Also force – migration of many scientists negatively said for activity of clinics. The number of wards decreased more than 2 times. Increased economic problems, activity of pediatric neurology even stopped. In 1995 professor Olimov leaved Dushanbe, because of family problems and he started working in the Khujand. Because there was not any professors from 1996 till 2001 Hoshimov R.A became head of chair.
From 2001 the head of chair became MD, Professor, honored scientist of RT Najmiddinova M.N. She used her rich scientific experiences and actively started research, scientific and pedagogic works.
From the September of 2007 the head of chair became the young professor R.A. Rahmonov.
His scientific books such as “new view to clinical genetic base of myodystrophy Duschenna– cellular view ” – Dushanbe 2001; “Essential tremor” – Dushanbe – 2007, are well known not only in Tajikistan, but also in Russian Federation.
By heading Rahmonov in the chair were asserted 5 Phd dissertation: F. Khojaev, V. Savelev, M.T. Ganieva, T.V. Madaminova, M.O. Isrofilov, in many aspects of neurology problems. And also there was organized society of neurologists of RT ”Neuron”, that unite all the neurologists of Tajikistan.
Also there were solved many problems of chair by Rahmonov such as: modernizing of neurologic classrooms by computers, Internet renovation of classrooms and halls, reestablishing the name of chair in scientists society, organizing library of neurology. Publishing of textbooks in tajik language, making syllabuses in Tajik was his deal. Also by him was published textbook “Neurology”.
For now (from September of 2018) the head of chair is c.m.s. M.T. Ganieva.
There were organized scientific modern topics that include prevention, diagnostic, treatment of neurologic diseases, coordinating to renovation of healthcare in our country and completed many researches.
Todays in chair of neurology and medical genetic basis actively work young assistants: c.m.s. Madaminova T.V., c.m.s. M.O. Isrofilov, M.M. Asoev, M.J. Isoqova, M.B. Isoeva, T.B. Tojiddinov, Zuurbekova D.P., Kholmatova G.K. Many of them are working for their scientific researches.
By the members of chair were published more than 1 300 scientific publications in national, international, intersociety conferences, conferences of Neurologists and psychiatrists and also developed neurology not only in Tajikistan but in some European countries.