History of the department
Transplantology is a specialty based on the study of surgical and pathophysiological problems of organ and tissue transplantation in a clinic and experiment, finding ways to overcome tissue compatibility reactions, creating temporary or permanent tolerance of an organism to foreign antigenic structures, and also including the development and use of technical devices for the partial or complete replacement of vital organs and their parts that have lost their function.
In September 2009, a kidney transplant was performed from a living related donor at the General Surgery Department of the City Clinical Hospital No. 5 in Dushanbe.
In 2011, the National Scientific Center for Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues at the Ministry of Health and Social Protection of the Republic of Tajikistan was organized and launched, in which more than 600 kidney transplants from living related donors were performed, as well as related liver transplants. The existing level of transplantology in the Republic of Tajikistan and in the world, as well as prospects for further development, justify the need to teach the discipline "Transplantology and artificial organs" at each medical university as part of the main course of higher professional education, the organization of the relevant departments.
In 2016, at the initiative of the rector of the TSMU named after Abuali ibni Sino, Professor Gulzod M.K. The Department of Innovative Surgery of Transplantology was established with the clinical base of the National Scientific Center for Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues, and teaching of transplantology has begun.
During this period, 10 doctors underwent advanced training in the course of endoscopic surgery. In connection with the expansion of the provision of transplantological care in the country, an increase in the number of patients after transplantation, the number of doctors who need to undergo advanced training in transplantation is constantly increasing, not only at the expense of surgeons, but also at the expense of anesthetists, resuscitators, nephrologists, doctors of ultrasound diagnostics. The demand for teaching transplantation topics is also related to the fact that students are taught organ transplantation issues, immunosuppression, legal aspects of transplantation, perioperative preparation issues, specific intensive care issues, transplantation technologies in liver surgery. On the clinical base of the department, it is possible to carry out a set of modern examination methods for the pathology of the hepatobiliary system, including the terminal stages of diseases of the liver, kidneys, pancreas. All types of surgical interventions are performed on the hepatobiliary system, including organ transplantation (liver, kidney), metabolic operations are performed for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The staff of the department are highly qualified specialists of the national center for transplantation of human organs and tissues. Employees of the department are involved in performing complex and high-tech surgical interventions on the abdominal organs, including all types of liver, kidney transplants. The staff of the department performed and put into practice complex, high-tech interventions:
• kidney transplantation for adults and children;
• liver transplantation for adults and children;
• bone marrow transplant;
• liver resection (hemihepatectomy, extended hemihepatectomy, sectorectomy, segment resection, non-anatomical liver resection), ALPPS - two-stage liver resection;
• pancreatic surgery, proximal and distal pancreas resection with lymphadenectomy;
• laparoscopic sampling of a donor kidney;
• all types of laparoscopic surgery;
• laparoscopic and classical metabolic interventions - drain-resection of the stomach, bypass surgery;
• endoligation, endocclipation and endosclerosis of varicose veins of the esophagus;
• oncological operations with lymphadenectomy;
Continuing education courses are held for doctors of various specialties: transplant doctors, surgeons, anesthesiologists, resuscitators, nephrologists, ultrasound doctors, gastroenterologists.