May 30th - World asthma and allergy day

May 30th - World asthma and allergy day

The World Health Organization (WHO), together with the United Nations (UN), regularly establishes new dates dedicated to certain diseases.

May 30 was established as World Asthma and Allergy Day. One tenth of the world's adult population is asthmatic and 1 in 4 children suffer from allergies. Every year the number of allergy sufferers increases by 35-40 million people, and every 10 years the number of allergy sufferers doubles. Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents in industrialized countries has increased 3-4 times.

Allergic reactions are based on an immune response to allergens. When they enter the body, the immune system realizes its protective function by producing antibodies to the allergen. A hereditary imbalance of immunocompetent cells, the so-called T-helper cells, occurs: the number of Th2 cells increases and the number of Th1 cells decreases. The increased number of Th2-lymphocytes increases the production of immunoglobulin class E (Ig E), which leads to degranulation of mast cells and the release of histamines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and other inflammatory mediators. Depending on where the allergen and Ig E meet, characteristic manifestations occur that create the clinical picture of an allergic disease (in the case of allergodermatoses, in the layers of the skin).

Allergodermatoses include such diseases as contact-allergic dermatitis, toxicoderma, eczema, pruritus, urticaria, neurodermatitis, scabies, atopic dermatitis.

In all types of allergodermatoses, the foci of inflammation show swelling of the skin, redness, fluid-filled vesicles, exudation with the formation of scales and crusts, papules or nodules, and lichenification phenomena in long-standing foci. Rashes are accompanied by severe itching, burning or tingling of the skin. In places of combing can occur infectious complications as a result of bacterial, fungal infection. In the “dormant” course of the disease, dryness and peeling of the skin are observed. All this creates severe physical and psychological discomfort, disrupting the usual course of life, affecting the ability to work.

In babies of the first years of life, allergy manifests itself in the form of atopic dermatitis: the skin is dry and itchy. If during the day the child is still distracted, at night he does not sleep well, sits up in bed and, without waking up, begins to itch.

Symptomatic therapy of skin allergies includes several groups of medications:

1. antihistamines. The active substance of this group of drugs stops the main pathological mechanism that constitutes the essence of the allergic reaction - activation of histamine receptors.

2. Hormonal agents. Appointed for topical application, in the form of ointments and creams. They affect cellular reactions, effectively eliminate inflammation and itching.

3. Additional means. Prolonged course of skin allergy is fraught with the development of deep lesions of the upper layers of the skin, cosmetic disorders and dystrophic lesions of problem areas. To prevent complications, a course of vitamin supplements, immunomodulatory drugs is recommended. In erosive processes on the skin, local preparations with emollients, fats that restore the protective functions of damaged skin have a good healing effect.

Prognosis

The prognosis of skin allergies is almost always favorable. An allergic reaction on the skin is rarely life-threatening, but can bring serious discomfort due to the consequences: spots, irregularities, pigmentation. To avoid the formation of problems, it is necessary to carry out timely symptomatic treatment and avoid contact with the allergen.

Prevention

Preventive measures include allergen elimination, adherence to a hypoallergenic diet, a careful approach to the choice of household chemicals, thoughtful use of cosmetics, choosing a place of work that is safe in terms of allergic background (presence of harmful chemicals), compliance with sleep and rest, maintaining your psychological health.

Allergic diseases can and must be fought! Preventive measures should start from the intrauterine period and continue after the birth of the child. Early detection and timely therapy of hypersensitivity conditions prevents the development of various severe forms of allergies. Healthy lifestyle is the key to the health of modern man.

 

 

Dyrda N.I., c.m.s., associate professor of the department of dermatovenerology named after professor Zoirov P.T.

translated Ismoilov R.


30.05.2024 1352
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