Dedicated to the birthday of Abuali ibni Sino and the professional holiday of medical workers of Tajikistan
Shaikhurrais Abuali ibni Sino is one of the few historical figures who, with his lasting scientific legacy in the history of mankind, has remained as a bright and shining figure to this day.
Abuali Husayn ibn Abdullah ibn Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna (980-1037), was born in the small village of Afshana, near Bukhara, the capital of the Samanid state, and even at an early age his many and constant unusual questions amazed the adults.
Along with the school curriculum, Ibn Sina additionally studied grammar, Arabic language, stylistics, and by the time he was 10 years old, he had already memorized the entire Qur'an and became one of the most respected people of his time. He received his early education in theology and later turned his attention to secular sciences — medicine, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy.
Already at the age of 20, Ibn Sina was known as a famous scientist. He was a physician of the Samanid court and the Dalai Lama, the most famous and influential medieval philosopher and scientist of Islam, the author of many scientific works on medicine, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and mineralogy. The exact number of his works has not been determined (some say the number of his works is 456, of which 23 are in Persian). Ibn Sina's main work is The Law of Medicine.
This fundamental work, which consists of 5 volumes, contains information on medicine, pharmacology, detailed descriptions of the heart, liver, brain, etc., and for the first time proved and published many diseases, their diagnosis and treatment. In particular, Ibn Sina rejected the idea that the cornea is the source of vision and proved that the image of an object is provided by the retina, or the retina of the eye. Ibn Sina wrote about the possibility of the spread of infectious diseases through the air, for the first time determined the difference between cholera and pleurisy, pneumonia, and gave detailed information about leprosy, diabetes, gastric ulcer and others. One of Ibn Sina's greatest discoveries was the diagnosis of the heart. Contemporaries wrote that he could only tell by the pulse what the patient was suffering from. A number of diagnoses and appointments of famous doctors have not lost their value to this day. Including:
... If you give the patient honey with cold water, it will help with nausea and inflammation of the stomach.
Licorice root softens and cleans the lung tube; is beneficial for the lungs and throat and promotes sound clarity.
Plantain leaves prevent bleeding and promote healing of old and clean wounds ...
These and many other herbs described in Al-Qanun are still used to treat patients. This work of the Oriental scholar was translated into Latin in the twelfth century and served as a basic guide for European physicians until the seventeenth century, and was their table book.
Another treatise, which covers various fields of knowledge, is Kitab-ush-Shifo. It already gained immense popularity in the middle of the twelfth century, when it was translated into Latin by Dominique Gundisalvi. Ibn Sina expressed his philosophical ideas in Persian in the book "Encyclopedia". As a philosopher, Ibn Sina did a lot of work to develop a philosophical dictionary in Arabic and Persian. In order to defend and develop Aristotle's philosophical system, Ibn Sina in his writings paid close attention to logic, the doctrine of reason, matter and form, enlightenment, categories, principles of organization of thought and knowledge. He was a humanist philosopher because his teachings were essentially the unity of the organs of the human body and soul.
Ibn Sina had a great influence on the classical medieval Persian, Tajik, Arabic and Jewish literature. His most famous story was “Hay ibn Yaqzan”. Some scholars claim that this work influenced Dante's creation of Dante's Humor.
Shaikhurrais was a scientist who was inspired by the spirit of research and the desire for encyclopedic coverage of all modern fields of knowledge, and had an extremely strong memory and sharp thinking.
The encyclopedic treatise Kitab-ush-Shifo, written in Arabic, is devoted to logic, physics, biology, psychology, geometry, arithmetic, music, astronomy, and metaphysics.
Al-Qanun fi-t-tib is also an encyclopedic work in which the instructions of ancient physicians are interpreted and revised in accordance with the achievements of Arabic medicine. Of the 2,600 medicines described in Al-Qunun, 1,400 are medicinal plants.
Ibn Sina wrote extensively in his work on the role and place of physical exercise in health and medical practice. He argues that if a person exercises regularly and on time and follows a schedule, then he or she does not need any treatment or medication. Exercise strengthens muscles, ligaments and nerves. The great sage advises to take into account age and health when exercising. She gave useful tips on massage with cold and hot water.
In the field of chemistry, Ibn Sina discovered the process of distillation of essential oils. He was able to produce hydrochloric acid, sulfate and nitrogen, potassium and sodium hydroxides.
In astronomy, Ibn Sina criticizes Aristotle's notion that stars reflect the light of the Sun, proving that stars shine with their light, but he believes that planets also have the power to give light. Shaikhurrais says that he observed the passage of Venus from the solar system on May 24, 1032. However, modern scientists doubt that he could have observed this transition at a specific time and place. He used this observation to prove Plato's idea that Venus, at least, is sometimes closer to Earth than the Sun.
While in Gurgan, Ibn Sina wrote a treatise on the length of this city. Ibn Sina did not allow the use of the method used by Abu al-Wafa and Beruni, but proposed a new method, which was to measure the height of the crescent moon and compare it with the height of Baghdad by calculating according to the rules of spherical trigonometry.
In his astronomical treatise, Ibn Sina described an observational instrument he had invented that, in his opinion, contributed to the development of astronomy, and he was the first to use this instrument to make accurate measurements.
The great sage made a great contribution to the development of the theory of built-in (or imprinted) force - the medieval theory of motion. According to this theory, the reason for the motion of an abandoned object is a force (later called an impulse) that originates from external sources. In his view, the “engine” (human hand, belt, etc.) gives the moving body (stone, arrow) some “effort”, just as fire transfers heat to water. Gravity can also act as an engine.
According to Ibn Sina, there are three kinds of "effort": mental (in living beings), natural and forced. "Natural effort" is the result of the action of gravity and is manifested in the fall of the body, that is, according to Aristotle, in the natural movement of the body. In this case, “trying” can even exist in the body without movement and show itself in resistance to movement. “Forced exertion” is similar to the propulsive force of the philippine - it is delivered to the body of an abandoned body by an “engine”. When the body moves, the “forced effort” is reduced due to the resistance of the environment, resulting in the body’s speed tending to zero. Ibn Sina tried to define “forced effort”: in his view, it is proportional to the weight and speed of the body’s movement.
Perhaps Ibn Sina's ideas about the power of coercion in the West became known, which contributed to the further development of the theory of motivation by Buridan and other scholastics.
In his study of metaphysics, Ibn Sina followed Aristotle. Ibn Sina affirms the coexistence of the universe with the Creator. Ibn Sina explained creation in eternity with the help of the neoplatonic concept of emanation, and thus justified the logical transition from primitive individuality to the diversity of the created world. However, unlike Neoplatonism, he limited the process of emanation to the celestial realm and saw matter not as the end result of its descent, but as a necessary element of possible existence. The universe is divided into three worlds: the material world, the world of eternally inseparable forms, and the earthly world in all its diversity. The individual spirit and the body form a single substance that ensures the full revival of man; the conductor of philosophical thought is a specific body inclined to receive the spirit of reason. Absolute truth can be understood through intuitive vision, which is the culmination of the thought process.
Ibn Sina wrote the textbook Logic (1031 or 1035). "Logic," he wrote, "is the science by which the various methods of passing from the things in the human mind to the things which one seeks to understand are known." Ibn Sina was of the opinion that categories and rules of logic should correspond to things. The subject of logic, he said, was the solution of a general and specific problem. The commonality exists in the object itself, but it also exists before and after it. Thinking is general knowledge. In his theory of cognition, it is impossible to ignore the elements of the sensualist tendency, because without emotional knowledge, according to Ibn Sina, the process of perception is impossible.
Shaikhurrais called logic the science of forms of thinking. It is part of philosophy, along with physics (the doctrine of Genesis) and mathematics. According to Ibn Sina, logic consists of four parts: concept, reflection, conclusion and proof.
Ibn Sina also developed his teachings on the client and human nature. According to his teachings, human nature is divided into four simple types: hot, cold, wet and dry (which in modern psychology corresponds to four clients). These natures are not stable, but change under the influence of internal and external factors, such as meteorological conditions and seasonal changes. Changes in body fluids can also correct human nature in the right direction. In addition to his simple nature, Ibn Sina distinguished four more complex natures depending on the predominance of one of the four body fluids (blood, mucus, yellow or black bile).
The great thinker Abu Ali Ibn Sina wrote many serious scientific works in the form of poems and rubai. Among his works, lyrical works - dubai and rubai - have a special place.
In particular, the world-famous writer of Persian and Tajik literature of the XII century, Umar Khayyam, called Ibn Sina his master.
From a theoretical point of view, Ibn Sina, according to the medieval tradition, attributed music to the mathematical sciences. He defined it as a science that studies sounds in their relationships and aims to determine the rules of composition. Based on the teachings of Pythagoras, he believed that music depended on numbers and was closely related to them.
Ibn Sina was the first in history to provide a solid scientific basis for the history of music, according to which music was considered not only in terms of mathematics, but also in relation to sociology, psychology, poetry, ethics and physiology.
Ibn Sina, together with Al-Farabi, laid the foundation for the science of musical instruments, which developed much later in Europe. He gives a detailed classification of the types of musical instruments and explains their structure. The sixth chapter of the Encyclopaedia lists almost all the tools available and their descriptions. The works of Ibn Sina and Al-Farabi on the study of musical instruments laid the foundation for instrumentalization as a specific field of musicology.
There is a belief that Abu Ali Ibn Sina invented the means of attaining eternal life. Only the mistake of the disciple, who broke the last of the forty vessels of medicine, prevented the invention of the "potion of life." Yet a thousand years later, there is no doubt that Ibn Sina is alive forever. Because the world-famous services of this scientist, philosopher, encyclopedist and great Tajik sage, the precious scientific heritage of this unique genius, his name will forever be engraved in the history of mankind.
Gulzoda Mahmadshoh Qurbonali
Rector of ATSMU, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor